ORAL Polio Vaccination in Uganda
(OPV) ORAL Polio Vaccination in Uganda:
It was only in 2002 that the penny dropped, when Nkuba made the connection between the discontinuation of the OPV in the US and its introduction in Uganda. The OPV, developed by Dr Albert Sabin in the 1950s and which used the live polio virus, had been banned from use in America because it had been observed to accidentally cause the disease in recipients of the vaccine. The US then reverted to using the Inactivated Polio Virus or IPV.
Instead of discarding vaccines worth millions of dollars, these suddenly useless but dangerous doses of the OPV were being force-fed to children in Uganda! (Excerpts from article by Andreas Moritz)
Vaccine viruses are excreted in the stool of the vaccinated person for up to 6 weeks after a dose. Maximum viral shedding occurs in the first 1–2 weeks after vaccination, particularly after the first dose.
Vaccine viruses may spread from the recipient to contacts. Persons coming in contact with fecal material of a vaccinated person may be exposed and infected with vaccine virus. (The Pink Book: Course Textbook)
To eliminate the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), as of January 1, 2000, Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) was no longer recommended for routine immunization in the United States.
It was to be vaccination at gunpoint
Government to arrest parents who resist ORAL Polio immunisation (Jan. 16, 2015)
Kampala- The Ministry of health together with the World Health Organisation (WHO) yesterday launched a countrywide house-to-house polio immunisation campaign of children below five years of age with a promise to arrest whoever tries to sabottage.
“During the exercise, all children under five years of age whether previously immunised or not, will be given Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) drops in the mouth,” said Ms Opendi.
“Parents and religious groups who have been campaigning against government programmes including immunisation will be arrested,” said Dr Aceng, adding that a lot of advocacy and communication messages on the campaign have been made over the various channels of communication.- by email@example.com
“The more people chant about their freedom and how free they are, the more loudly I hear their chains rattling.” ~English novelist George Orwell
Uganda Government Lied: “Govt changes polio vaccine“
– Posted Monday, April 21 2014 at 20:47 By AGATHA AYEBAZIBWE
The government will next year introduce injectable polio vaccine for children to substitute orally-administered ones, a senior Health ministry official said yesterday.
Ministry of Health permanent secretary Asuman Lukwago said the reversion follows findings that because the oral vaccine has live polio virus, people with weak immunities instead got exposed to polio rather than protected --- what health workers call vaccine-derived polio.
The new injectable vaccine called Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV), consists of inactivated or killed poliovirus strains, according to Dr Mayanja.
Trade Names: Orimune
– Suspension, oral Mixture of 3 viruses (Types 1, 2, and 3) propagated in monkey kidney tissue culture
Do not administer OPV to any person with immunosuppression or to any household member of immunodeficient person. This includes combined immunodeficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, agammaglobulinemia, thymic abnormalities, leukemia, lymphoma, generalized malignancy, and lowered resistance to infection from therapy with corticosteroids, alkylating drugs, antimetabolites, or radiation. Advise vaccine recipients to avoid contact with such persons for at least 6 to 8 wk.
Do not give OPV to member of household in which there is family history of immunodeficiency until immune status of intended recipient and other children in family is determined to be normal. IPV is preferred for immunizing all persons in these circumstances.
- 18 January 2015 16:59 (Last updated 18 January 2015 17:21)
Nigeria and most other poor nations use an oral polio vaccine because it’s cheaper, easier, and protects entire communities. But it’s made from a live polio virus which carries a small risk of causing polio. In even rarer instances, the virus in the vaccine can mutate into a deadlier version that ignites new outbreaks.
The vaccine used in the United States and other Western nations is given in shots, which use a killed virus that cannot cause polio.
Paralytic poliomyelitis associated with live oral poliomyelitis vaccine in child with HIV infection in Zimbabwe: case report:
To describe a complication of oral vaccination with live, attenuated poliomyelitis virus in a child infected with HIV.
Two weeks after receiving the second dose of oral poliomyelitis vaccine during national immunisation days the child developed paralysis of the right leg. He had a high titre of antibodies against poliovirus type 2, as well as antibodies against HIV-1, a low CD4 count, a ratio of CD4 to CD8 count of 0.47, and hypergammaglobulinaemia. He did not have any antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, or poliovirus types 1 and 3, although he had been given diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis and oral polio vaccines during his first year and a booster of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine at 24 months. He had no clinical symptoms of AIDS, but his mother had AIDS and tuberculosis.
Paralytic poliomyelitis in this child with HIV infection was caused by poliovirus type 2 after oral poliomyelitis vaccine.
(8). Reasons for not making IPV available:
Although risk of VAPP is low in immunocompetent individuals, this risk is extremely high in immunocompromised recipients or immunocompromised close contacts. A safe vaccine (IPV) exists for such individuals, but active intervention to make it unavailable to these should be construed as a deliberate action to put a section of the society to a known and avoidable risk by compelling them to take OPV. It would be difficult to find a similar example in medical history.- By Y. Paul/Medical Veritas 3 (2006)
Immunosuppression due to disease or drugs is an important issue with regard to the question of OPV versus IPV.
On the other hand I do believe that it is unethical on the part of the government not to compensate children and their families when a child develops this adverse reaction. With improved surveillance of all cases of acute flaccid paralysis, I am sure the government is aware of cases of vaccine associated polio cases.
T. Jacob John Chairman, Committee on Immunization and President, Indian Academy of Pediatrics Thekkekara,